Aeration along with pre-chlorination for removal of dissolved iron when present with small amounts relatively of manganese Coagulation for flocculation or slow-sand filtration
Coagulant aids, also known as polyelectrolytes – to improve coagulation and for more robust floc formation
Sedimentation for solids separation that is removal of suspended solids trapped in the floc
Filtration to remove particles from water either by passage through a sand bed that can be washed and reused or by passage through a purpose designed filter that may be washable. Disinfection for killing bacteria viruses and other pathogens.

Technologies for potable water and other uses are well developed, and generalized designs are available from which treatment processes can be selected for pilot testing on the specific source water.

In addition, a number of private companies provide patented technological solutions for treatment of specific contaminants. Automation of water and waste-water treatment
is common in the developed world. Source water quality through the seasons, scale and environmental impact can dictate capital costs and operating costs. End use of the treated water
dictates the necessary quality monitoring technologies, and locally available skills typically dictate the level of automation adopted. For more information please email us at